Lighting : LIGHTING-June-July-2017
8 LIGHTING MAGAZINE | June/July 2017 June/July 2017 | LIGHTING MAGAZINE 9 FROM THE EDITOR I’ve written before about how good it can be to attend conferences with regard to learning new things, meeting people with similar problems, solved or to be solved and listening to the to-and- fro of discussion time in determining whether something “new” is really new or not. I was surprised at the small conference in which I participated in Bangkok in mid-May. It was organised by James Wallace, of Perth, for the China Lighting Designers’ Association. What particularly surprised me was a paper by Yokeyuin Cheong from IHS Markit in Penang, Malaysia on Market opportunities for LED video display technology. “So what?” You might say, “that’s not surprising”. Well, in an editorial a few months ago I mentioned high resolution LED displays with pixel spacings less than 1mm. LED displays are interesting for a number of reasons but it is important to distinguish them from “LED TVs” which are usually not LED displays but LCD displays, with LEDs used to provide the necessary back-lighting. An LED display has red, blue and green LEDs, creating a pixel, producing the light directly and whose colour and luminance can be changed. They are more expensive than LCD displays but can be (much, much) brighter and can be joined to make borderless, large displays. LCD displays need a bezel but even the narrowest bezels are visible on most large LCD displays; for example those used behind television presenters. So, now things get more interesting since high resolution LED displays have potential for both indoor and outdoor applications – particularly in advertising, since LCD screens are unsuitable for daytime use because their luminances cannot compete with those created by skylight or sunlight on the display’s face. Ms Cheong’s paper showed the huge projected growth in both LCD and LED displays and that LED will always be more expensive than LCD but that LED’s high brightness will see them as, possibly, the most important outdoor advertising medium in the future. They will also become important, probably replacing video projection, certainly in educational applications and in cinemas. Samsung has recently gained compliance approval for its direct view LED cinema display. That was done without much fanfare but it is likely to spur similar developments by Sony Electronics and HSI Immersive. These high-end displays will be free from the EMC (interference) problems plaguing many of the cheaper outdoor/indoor displays from China. In the US, there have been massive fines imposed on the operators of non-compliant systems, as well as their being shut down. Again, you might say “so what?”. Well, as a member of Standards Australia’s committee LG-010 on Obtrusive Light, these insights and others from the conference discussions, are invaluable as LG-010 considers which light technical and other parameters are important with regard to outdoor advertising signs, since these are a new inclusion in the revision of AS4282. The discussion at the Bangkok International LED Summit 2017 also recognised that whilst (LED) technology has produced a revolution in outdoor display advertising, the real issues are not technical but social – society must determine policy, just as it must with other “disrupters” such as Uber and Airbnb. That small, somewhat low-key conference was very helpful for those involved in the public and technical policy issues of outdoor lighting and its effect on people and the environment. Try not to miss such opportunities when they arise. Warren Julian Editor More disruption from advances in LED technology LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Criminal friendly lighting and a false sense of security I refer to the article published in the February/March issue (pp22-25). While I agree with some of the information in the article I believe that the presentation is somewhat sensational and the conclusions do not necessarily arise from the facts. I suspect that there is more of a Dark Sky agenda, whilst important, than a desire to improve night-time safety or to promote the responsible use of public money. Much of the research into public lighting and crime has been carried out by sociologists or criminologists who, while being experts in their subject, have limited expertise in lighting and therefore, take a very simplistic view of lighting. Assessments are usually made on the basis of average illumination levels or recommended levels with little regard for the quality of the installations. I agree that lighting does not reduce crime. I have never heard anyone say that they were giving up a life of crime because the lighting was too bright. Unfortunately, there is a misconception, particularly by some public authorities, that the solution to all crime is to keep increasing the lighting levels. With all lighting there is a diminishing scale of returns and once you have achieved an adequate illumination level for the task, increasing the illumination level gives less and less additional performance. So how does lighting reduce crime? We need to separate security lighting from public lighting as they are separate issues. When public lighting refers to the risk of crime it is talking about crime in public spaces. It is not referring to crime in general. It refers to the actual risk of crime, the vulnerability of the situation and the perception of personal safety. The main role of public lighting is to enhance natural surveillance. This works in two ways. Firstly, if the space is well lit and comfortable to be in, then there is a higher chance that people will be in the space. The presence of people and adequate lighting increases the chance that any potential offence will be witnessed, which shifts the risk/benefit of the crime away from the perpetrator. 22 LIGHTI N GM A G A ZI N E|Feb r ua r y/Ma r ch 20 1 7 Feb r ua r y/Ma r ch 20 1 7 | LIGHTI N GM A G A ZI N E23 Q &A C r i m inal - f r iendly lighting and a false sense of se c u r ity WHA TIST H ELI GH TI NG AND CR I M E MY T H? Long sta nd i ng c on ve n ti on al wis dom ist h at li gh ti ng t h i ng s up at n i gh t m akes a n area sa f er. H o wever, t h ere is no relia b le scie n ti f ic evi d e n ce fo rt h is. I nf act, m y researc h i nd icates a s m all a d verse e ff ect. HOW S O? I n 2002-3, I pub lis h e d atw o - p art re po rt calle d O u t doo r L i gh ti ng a nd Cri m e.I n t h e f irst p art, a literat u rea n alysis i nd icate d t h ati n creasi ng li gh t at n i gh tca n certai n ly allay t h e f ear of cri m e bu tt h ee ff ect onp reve n ti ngo r d eterri ng act u al cri m e was un certai n . Th e sec ondp art relie donpub lis h e d cri m e statistics f o r do ze n s o f cities ar ound t h e w o rl d f o rw h ic h satellite m eas u re m e n ts o f li gh ti n te n sity were als o availa b le. Th e res u lts c on tra d icte d c on ve n ti on al b elief: at ty p ical levels o f street li gh ti ng ,te n f o l d i n creases i n li gh ti ng relia b ly p r odu cei n creases ar ound a few p erce n ti n t h e cri m e rate. S ix weeks after I pu t m y scie n tific re pu tati onon t h eli n e b y releasi ng t h e sec ondp art, t h ere was a g reat b lack ou t i n t h e no rt h -easter n states o ft h eU S Aa nd Ca n a d a.I n acc o r d a n ce wit hm yfi nd i ng st h ere was a m arke dd ecrease i n cri m et h r oughou tt h e affecte d area. S t ud ies i n t h eUKa nd U Sh ave si n ce c onf ir m e d t h at cri m eis no ti n crease d w h e n street li gh ti ng is re du ce d .Re g ar d less, A u stralia n li gh ti ng sta nd ar d sc on ti nu et o s p eci f y b ri gh ter ill um i n ati on w h e n t h e p erceive do rk no w n risk of cri m eis h i gh er. U nfo rt un ately, t h is h el p s p er p et u ate t h e m yt hof li gh ti ngfo rsa f ety a nd sec u rity w h ile act u ally f acilitati ng cri m eat n i gh t. It als ooppo ses ec onom ica nd e n vir onm e n tal reas on st o re du ce ou t doo rli gh ti ng . WHY DO YOU T H I NK T H ISIS ? L i gh ti ngfo rsa f etyiss o i ng rai n e d t h at of te n w h e n re du cti on si nou t doo ra mb ie n tli gh t f l u xat n i gh t are p r opo se d , p e op let h r o w up t h eir h a nd s i nho rr o ra nd say “I f eel un sa f eat n i gh t wit hou ta l o t of li gh t”, bu tit’sa f alse se n se of sec u rity. If you have to wa l k outdoor s atn i ght, the chance s are you prefer we ll - li t route s over dark one s . The fee li ng that li ght equa lss afety iss oub i qu i tou s that i t come s a s ab i tofa s hock when you d is cover your fee li ng s of s afety are probab l y ill u s ory; and, wor s e s t ill ,we ll - li t area s can actua ll y encourage cr i m i na l behav i our. D r Barry Cl ark is a s ucce ss fu l human factor s re s earcher. H eha ss tud i ed the controver si a l top i c of li ght i ng and cr i me. A s wew ills ee i nth is Q&A, he is pa ssi onate about the need for peop l eto under s tand that popu l ar be li ef about li ght i ng and cr i me ha s been s hown to be a myth. BY PENN Y JONES Figu r e 1 . The luminai r e uses a ce r amic metal halide lamp in a sphe r ical luminai r e. (All images from Illinois Coalition for Responsible O utdoor Lighting, U SA) Figu r e 2. The” V icto r ian” aco r n-shaped luminai r e uses a high-p r essu r e sodium.
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