Lighting : Lighting October 2014 - Vol 34 Issue 5
October/November 2014 | LIGHTING MAGAZINE 37 36 LIGHTING MAGAZINE | October/November 2014 I magine being eaten if the lighting is wrong. Survival of the fittest not only applied to the marine creatures inhabiting the Marine Life Park, Resorts World Sentosa, Singapore but also to the Australian companies that helped bring the Park to life. Jenni Gillard Architectural Lighting Designers was responsible for lighting the underwater exhibits and contributing to harmonious lighting outcomes with the surrounding built environment. Crossley Architects designed the physical structure and aquatic environmental systems (AES) delivered marine habitat expertise. The ghoulish world of predation and survival and so much more is on show through the world’s largest acrylic viewing panel, oceanarium and aquarium, comprises forty-three display habitats. Since the Park opened over a million visitors have experienced its underwater wonders. behaviour must be agreeably interdependent. The Park’s success reflects the collaborative expertise of all involved. DESIGN CHALLENGES We had a simple brief, design the world’s best lighting solution for the Park’s star attractions – its marine life. Foremost, the design was driven by the needs of the marine life, represented by the AES. We listened, interpreted advice, researched and mimicked the lighting needs for every habitat. A second challenge was the built environment. Optimal lighting positions were not always available, light behaves differently in water, the potential for stray light was constant and satisfying local safety codes were some of the challenges overcome. The scale of works was addressed by treating habitats as discrete sub-projects. A parallel After much experimentation, calculation and modelling we selected 120kW LED and 1kW, 2kW and asymmetric 1kW metal halide lamps. We designed time clock switching and circuit controls to create morning, midday and evening light conditions. To sit and observe this habitat is amazing. THE SHIPWRECK HABITAT For this habitat we used LED and metal halide for water penetration, however, locations and beam spreads accented the ship’s superstructure, minimised light pollution and created atmosphere and light and shadow for small fish to hide from predators (Figure 1). THE SHARK HABITAT Many sharks and other marine species live in this habitat (Figure 2). Shark’s eyes are particularly adapted to dim light levels and most sharks are active (move faster) at dusk and after dark. We selected LED and CASE STUDY BY JENNI GILLARD AND MARK LLOYD Lighting the world’s largest oceanarium LIGHTING MARINE LIFE Survival of marine plants and animals relies on the artificial world created in the Park. Central to survival is lighting, since bad lighting design results in dwindling numbers of ‘exhibits’; an unconscionable and commercially untenable outcome. Variations in temperature, salinity and oxygen levels can modify marine behaviour but it is in the diurnal change in light intensity that guides marine life through its daily journey. The level and intensity of illumination has a strong influence on marine life’s choice of daytime depth. Their tendency to retreat from lighted areas increases their survival chances from predators that hunt by sight. In nature, those that are slow to retire at dawn or quick to emerge at dusk are most likely to be gobbled. The needs of marine creatures and the expectations of the paying public are not always compatible. Yet, in this artificial world, their Figure 1. Shipwreck habitat. Figure 2. Shark habitat. supra-project adjusted lighting outcomes between habitats and human spaces. Considerable thought was also put into the ongoing maintenance and support of the lit environment. Governments’ timetables for forcing phase out of high-energy lamps had commenced. Manufacturers were retooling and producing the first-wave of LED product. While LED promised low energy use, issues arose with supply, quality, performance and warranties. As we were responsible for product selection and specification, time was invested researching and testing product. We took a very pragmatic approach to LED use. We may have been the first in the world to use LED in an artificial marine environment on this scale. THE OPEN OCEAN HABITAT The centrepiece of the Oceanarium is the world’s largest Open Ocean habitat. Magic happened here.
Lighting December 2014 - Vol 34 Issue 6
Lighting August 2014 - Vol34 Issue 4